Archive for October 31st, 2008

Employment Contract

Employment Contract Checklist:

Who is the employer?
What date did employment commence?
Staff Handbook
Medical Insurance
Completion Bonuses
Intellectual Property and Confidentiality
Leave Entitlement
Termination Clause
Law and Jurisdiction 

Who is the employer?

This may be particularly relevant if there is a secondment situation. Are you employed by your employer in your home country, or by the employer in the local country. This may be relevant as to which law applies to the contract and in other ways.

What date did employment commence?

This is particularly relevant when considering eligibility for certain benefits, as well as qualifying you for certain employment law claims. If starting a new contract with a new company, this will be obvious, but where a secondment situation is in place, the “continuous employment” should be preferably be described as starting when you first worked for that company or group of companies in any country.

Staff Handbook

Is there any sort of staff handbook or office manual which applies to your employment? This could be in hard copy or on an intranet. This may contain provisions which are incorporated into your contract, or at least relevant procedures relating to your day-to-day employment.

Medical Insurance

Full medical insurance should be provided (including being returned to your country of residence if adequate medical facilities are not available).

Some policies decree that visiting a medical centre is your cost unless you are dying. This can be very expensive. If your employer is reluctant to cover the cost, tell them you will obtain your own medical insurance and invoice them accordingly. If the company agrees to reimburse you, ensure this is written into your contract.


The type of accommodation should be specified, including the country it applies to. For example, is it of western standard? Also check who covers expenses such as taxes, legal fees, insurance and other bills.

If you are relocating with your family ensure the company will pay the shipping and travel costs for the outward and return journey. Check if there are any conditions attached to this. Will the Company give rental assistance or help with house hunting?


Determine the number of actual working days in a year, taking into consideration public, bank and local holidays. Negotiate your rate on this basis and not on a monthly basis. Also ensure that your religious holidays and beliefs are not compromised.

Your salary should be paid on submission of signed timesheet, or in some other objectively determinable way, such as on a specific date each month. Check on what basis it is being paid – monthly, weekly etc, and whether it is to be paid in arrears or in advance (arrears being more likely). Is there an associated requirement to open a local bank account?

Overtime, if applicable, should be specified as to when it will be paid (usually a month in arrears). Alternatively some arrangement should be considered if overtime is not paid for example, time off in lieu on vacation (not locally)


Airline ticket should be to your nearest point of origin.

It is useful to have a clause which states that either tickets or the equivalent sum in cash will be provided by the company. This overcomes any problems if you do not wish to return to your home country. Does this apply to all the family?

Completion Bonuses

If it is not agreed that the bonus is paid at the end of the contract, they are usually worthless.

Never agree to a bonus that is paid on the basis of satisfactory completion – the interpretation is purely subjective

Intellectual Property and Confidentiality

If your job involves or may involve the creation of intellectual property rights (including copyright, patents, trade marks and design rights), the contract should specify who will own the intellectual property, and what law will apply to their creation. What confidentiality and other restrictive provisions are there? Ensure that you are aware of their significance.

Leave Entitlement

The number of leave days off should be clearly specified (ensure that a minimum of one month’s leave is written into the contract), together with provisions setting out how and when these should be taken. If not, the employer may take advantage and you could lose out. There may also be a provision for the number of leave days to increase each year. Ensure that public holidays are treated as being in addition to leave days, or have the number of leave days adjusted accordingly.

Termination Clause

Ensure this is clearly specified. Usually one month or 28 days, this is your protection against the contract not being suitable, and puts some responsibility on the employer. Check that the reasons allowing the employer to terminate the contract are not unreasonable, and if there is a reference to “misconduct” or “gross misconduct” ensure this is clearly defined for the avoidance of any doubt.


Try and fix your salary to a stable currency, and check on what basis it is linked.

Law and Jurisdiction

Check which law and jurisdiction apply to the contract. It may be local law, the law of your home country, or the law of the country where the employer is incorporated.

Working in Canada

Healthcare system

Canada, like Britain, has a well-established and comprehensive publicly funded healthcare service for the entire population – medicare. The service provides universal coverage for medically necessary hospital and physician services based on need rather than ability to pay. The biggest difference between the British and Canadian systems is that, although the federal government has the ultimate responsibility, the roles and responsibilities are shared with the provincial/territorial governments. The latter being responsible for the management, organisation and delivery of health services for their residents.

Primary care is the foundation of the healthcare system and patients do not pay for medical consultations or treatment and can have direct access to specialists without needing a GP referral.

Medical education
After completing an undergraduate course for two to four years, Canadian students then undertake a medical degree lasting three to four years. The final one or two years of this course are spent in hospitals or doctors’ offices. Upon completion of their medical studies, they join a residency programme which provides additional training in an area of specific focus. Depending on the field of medicine they select, this can take between two and seven years. At the end of the residency programme, doctors take a final exam which entitles them to practise medicine.

Before an immigration application can be approved, international medical graduates must establish professional competence. Registration is under the jurisdiction of the medical licensing authorities in each province, which can be a complicated business. Most of the licensing authorities will require you to pass the Medical Council of Canada Evaluating Examination (MCCEE), administered by the Medical Council of Canada (MCC). This is an exam for international medical graduates which tests general clinical competence in comparison with the standard of graduates from Canadian Medical Schools. It can be taken in French or English and is a general assessment of an individual’s basic medical knowledge in the principal fields of medicine. Specialists who have been certified by a Board member of the American Board of Medical Specialties or certified by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada or the College of Family Physicians of Canada may request exemption from the MCCEE. Doctors wishing to apply to CaRMS need to have passed the MCCEE.

Once the MCCEE is passed, doctors can take the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination (MCCQE) Part 1. This is a one-day computer based test assessing an individual’s competency for entry into supervised clinical practice in postgraduate training programmes. Sittings for the MCCQE Part 1 usually take place in spring and autumn.

In order to join the Canadian Medical Register as a Licentiate of the Medical Council of Canada doctors are required to pass the MCCQE Part 2. To be eligible you will have to have passed MCCQE Part 1 and completed a minimum of 12 months postgraduate medical training. This training can be undertaken anywhere. The MCCQE Part 2 assesses an individual’s knowledge, skills and attitudes essential for medical licensure in Canada. Some licensing authorities also require supplementary professional examinations and/or language examinations prior to registering a doctor.

All postgraduate residents and all practising physicians must hold an educational or practice licence from the medical licensing authority in the province in which they study or practise. Detailed information may be obtained from registrars in the Provincial Medical Regulatory (Licensing) Authorities at the addresses listed below.

Specialist qualifications gained overseas are no longer considered when granting a specialist licence in Canada. Instead you are now required to obtain a fellowship of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada.

You need employment authorisation from the Canadian High Commission before leaving the UK, and will have to have a medical examination carried out by an approved GP. A list of designated medical practitioners who are able to conduct the medical examination can be request . Note: Quebec has a similar, but separate immigration procedure. 
You will need to apply to the Canadian High Commission for a work permit, normally only issued on the basis of a temporary offer of employment, confirmed by a Canada Employment Centre certifying that there are no qualified Canadian citizens/permanent residents who are available to undertake the position offered. This would normally be a job offer which has been officially endorsed by the Canadian government.

Working & Job Guide for Canada

From its Aboriginal beginnings, to French and British colonization, to its large, modern-day communities of Latin American immigrants, Canada has always sustained an ethnically and culturally diverse population. Canada absorbs more immigrants per capita than any other country. Although it is the second largest country in the world after Russia, an average of only three people inhabit each square kilometer. Known for its cold, sprawling northern frontier, Niagara Falls, and maple-leafed flag, Canada is a complex, multicultural nation with some important differences from its southern neighbor, the United States.
The nation sustains an affluent, high-tech industrial society with a market-oriented economic system and high standards of living. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the Canadian manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one that is primarily industrial and urban. Real rates of growth have averaged nearly three percent since 1993. However, private sector forecasters estimated a slight slowdown in growth to 2.4 percent in 2000. This slowdown in growth is due in part to concerns of record high consumer debt and a low savings rate (2.3 percent in 1998). Nevertheless, low interest rates, net wage and employment gains, and fiscal stimulus may be impetus for growth.
Canada’s government is a confederation with parliamentary democracy. Queen Elizabeth II serves as the head of state under a constitutional monarchy. A democratically elected parliament is chosen at least every five years with the prime minister, chosen from the majority party or coalition, serving as head of the government and. Jean Chretien has served as the Canadian Prime Minister since November 4, 1993.

Professional Resources
Telephone directories are a good means of finding specific business and personal contact information in Canada. Canada411Sympatico provides an online website with Canadian business information, searchable by name and location. Links to the yellow pages, city guides, post codes, and toll free numbers are also provided.
The Chamber of Commerce is the prime meeting place for business people in Canada, whether one has just started in business or has been operating for many years. One can contact the Chamber of Commerce with questions or attend the courses it organizes. Many of these sites are in both French and English. The Canadian
Chamber of Commerce website is a good place to start.

Industry Canada/Industrie Canada is a good place to get an overall understanding of current opportunities in the country. The organization works with to improve conditions for investment; improve Canada’s innovation performance; increase Canada’s share of global trade; and build a fair, efficient, and competitive marketplace. Program areas include: developing industry and technology capability, fostering scientific research, setting telecommunications policy, promoting investment and trade, promoting tourism and small business development.
Canada Job Search Resources
1. The online job resources available in Canada are enormous. is one of the best sites to use as a Canadian job resource. An outstanding feature of this site is that is at the top of a more detailed network which includes provincial and city-level databases. Although Information Technology (IT) jobs are the most prevalent on the site, many other listings are available. Other resources include links to Canadian companies, employment agencies, discussion forums, useful books, training information, and job preparation tools. is in English only.

3.Online employment search: in Canada, networking is a tool that is extremely effective when pursuing employment in Canada. For the job-seeker, acquiring business and personal contacts within a selected industry, as well as associated industries, is key. The further the networking capabilities reach, the more opportunities and possibilities will present themselves.
Financial Considerations
Most Canadians enjoy a high standard of living, and the cost of living varies from province to province. Vancouver, Toronto and Montreal are the most expensive areas; Charlottetown, Winnipeg and Edmonton are much cheaper. Food and housing prices tend to mimic those in the United States. A liter of homogenized milk, a loaf of bread, and a dozen eggs will cost you about $3.50 C ($3.00 USD).
The Federal Government and provincial government plans provide basic hospital and medical care for residents. Four provinces have prescription drug plans for their residents and most provinces provide this benefit for residents 65 and over. Most employers provide healthcare plans above and beyond the basic coverage, including vision and dental benefits, and are now extending health coverage to “same-sex spouses.”
Federal tax is calculated, on Schedule 1 of the return, by applying a basic rate of 17% on the first $30,004 C ($19,175 USD) of taxable income. The maximum rate of 29% is applied to any excess over $60,009 C ($38,350 USD) of taxable income. The additional provincial tax rates vary from province to province, from a flat tax of 44% to 62% of the federal tax (Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut) to a graduated tax depending on income (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Manitoba, British Columbia).

Employment Trends
Canada’s unemployment rate has hit its lowest levels in recent history, dropping from 9.6 percent to seven percent. In the latter half of 2000, the Canadian labor market witnessed the creation of 187,000 new job openings. In the last few years, Canada has faced a critical shortage of skilled workers. Some industry experts call this a “brain drain,” as the best and brightest Canadian workers are flocking to the United States in search of higher salaries. Experts fear that the shortage of skilled workers in some sectors could grow to one million by 2020.
The Bank of Canada suggested recently that a shortage of skilled workers in Canada is spreading beyond high-tech industries, forcing employers in numerous other sectors to compete for a shrinking pool of qualified labor. Labor shortages have broadened beyond high-tech companies to include construction trades, truck transportation, engineering, food services, and accommodation.
To increase the skilled labor pool in Canada, the government has introduced legislation to make it easier for immigrants to enter Canada. A recent bill would eliminate the “occupations list” that awards points to immigrants with specific skills. The changes would also put a higher premium on family reunification by increasing the dependent-children category to include youths as old as 22. The age limit is currently 19.

A job search in Canada starts with preparing a one-page letter that is normally typed. However, more and more employers in Canada accept computer applications. To get ideas for creating an electronic resume, get the services or check the portofalio sites like
The resume (two pages, less if you have had little or no work experience), includes the following:
• Contact information, centered at the top.
• Education, listing colleges and/or universities attended, dates of attendance, courses of study, and diplomas or degrees. In this section, you should also mention extra courses or training, internships, and foreign travel. List this information in reverse-chronological order.
• Work experience, giving the firm name, your title(s), dates of employment and responsibilities. State whether the work was temporary or part-time. If you have no job at the present, you should mention that fact also. Once again, the information should be listed in reverse-chronological order.
• Other skills, such as computer, and language fluency.
• Personal information, such as relevant volunteer activities and hobbies.
• Three references, with their titles and contact information.
In Canada, it is illegal for a prospective employer to ask your marital status, sexual orientation, race or age, or to request a photo.

Information Technology
Job opportunities in the Canadian IT industry are quite strong. With the growing importance of computers and the Internet, companies are recruiting workers with strong IT qualifications. The Internet start-up and e-commerce boom has created large amounts of work for web designers, systems analysts, computer and database programmers and software developers in Canada. The Information Technology Association of Canada (ITAC) represents more than 1,300 companies in this area.
The emergence of New Media technologies has encouraged many creative professionals to enter the IT industry. Successful candidates usually possess a post-secondary education, specializing in the development and/or application of new media technologies.
The level of education required for employment in the IT industry depends greatly on the specific area of the industry in which one wishes to work. A post-secondary education is usually required, but many qualified applicants receive employment offers before they obtain their degree.

Companies like Microsoft, Oracle, Sun Microsystems, and others provide IT professionals with certification programs. Many corporations require potential IT employees to have these certifications in order to fit certain positions within the organization. The most qualified applicants often have a post-secondary degree in Computer Science or Computer   Engineering.

Interviewing Advice
You can do several things beforehand to prepare for an interview. Research the company, so that you have some idea of their corporate culture, their successes and their current direction. Prepare a list of your skills, matching it to the Company’s needs. Ask yourself possible questions, and formulate responses.
• Dress in neat, tailored clothes for the interview.
• Arrive on time. Canadians are usually punctual and expect punctuality in others.
• Shake hands with all those present at the interview, but be careful to allow adequate personal space, and avoid other physical contact.
• Be courteous and respectful. Canadians are deferential to authority and polite to each other.
Employers will look for your ability to respond to questions intelligently and quickly. During the interview, be yourself-and be modest about your accomplishments. Bragging, name-dropping and aggressiveness are considered to be in poor taste. Avoid raising the issue of salary or benefits early in the interview. However, if asked, be prepared to give your salary preference.

After the interview, write a letter of thanks. This not only shows your courtesy, but it also provides another point of contact with the employer.

In Canada, engineering is a regulated profession. By law, no one can be a practicing engineer without a license. Licensing is carried out by 12 provincial and territorial associations that set standards and regulate the profession. An engineering license is valid only within a specific jurisdiction. However, there is a mobility agreement among the provinces and territories regarding transfer of licenses.

Once registered, or licensed, as a member of a provincial or territorial association, engineers are known as professional engineers and are eligible to use the designation “P.Eng.” (“ing” in Québec) after their name. The Association of Consulting Engineers of Canada (ACEC) is the national voice of independent engineers in
the country.

Normally, to be licensed as a professional engineer by a provincial or territorial engineering association, a candidate must be a Canadian citizen or permanent resident; possess an undergraduate (Bachelor’s level) degree in engineering from an accredited Canadian university program, or possess an otherwise recognized engineering degree and complete an assigned examination program; complete two to four years of engineering work experience, depending on the association; and write and pass a professional practice examination on professional practice, ethics, engineering law and liability.

Work Permits
It is relatively easy to immigrate to Canada. To work in the country, foreigners can travel on a temporary visa and apply for a work permit (an Employment Authorization [EA] in Canada), or become a permanent resident of Canada. To obtain an EA, a Canadian job offer validated by the Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC) is required. This means that the employer has to prove that the position could not be filled by a Canadian citizen or resident. The validation process is complicated unless you are a software or IT professional, a member of an Exchange Program, or the Spouse of Highly Skilled Temporary Worker.

It’s advisibly to get a job in advance, subscribe to a job listing service,  information specialist , get or pay for guides or instruction on how to do  the documentation and paperwork properly and finally hire a accredited immigration specialist.  Everything is money in this days if you have want to save that’s a short cut. To enter the country, you should have the following: a valid passport, travel document, or other identity document; proof of sufficient funds while in Canada and enough to cover the costs of departure; lack of a criminal record, and, in some cases, a recent medical examination.

Non-Canadians interested in emigrating to the country can check out this blog frecuently or subscribe to its paid membership services, which provides information about obtaining work visas for Canada. Online assessment of eligibility to live and work in Canada can be made and free. In addition there is information on gaining permanent and temporary work status in Canada.

Accounting & Finance
Canada’s financial services and accounting sector is one of its strongest industries. Financial services professionals work in auditing and accounting firms, the federal and local government, banks, trust companies, investment and underwriting firms, stock and mortgage brokerages, commodity exchanges and other companies, as well as non-profit organizations. Self-employment makes up 22 percent of the workforce in this industry, a significant
increase over the past ten years.

As of February 2001, Canada had 2,996 financial institutions. The proportion of women (49 percent) in this field has increased dramatically over the last ten years. The unemployment rate in this area is the lowest for the occupations in the business, finance, and administration sectors, at approximately three percent. The Certified General Accountants of Canada (CGA) represents over 60,000 practicing professionals and students in Canada and abroad.

 Currently, expatriates have a strong chance of finding work in these occupations. Over the next five years, this outlook is not expected to change. The majority of Canadian companies have embraced financial technology using computerized financial systems to monitor business finances. Electronic funds transfer, automatic teller machines, and electronic data interchange are becoming the norm and are leading to new IT skill requirements.
Cultural Advice
There’s much more to Canada than maple syrup. If you’re planning a move, check out the following cultural tips:
• Canadians are polite, respectful of authority, consensus-oriented, and tend to avoid confrontation. They are courteous and respectful of women and older people, and men typically observe traditional actions of courtesy (such as holding a door open for a woman, or offering their seat to an older person).

• It is appropriate to address older people by their last name preceded by the appropriate term of “Mr.”, “Mrs.”, or “Miss.” “Bonjour” is the traditional French greeting, and the polite form of “you” when conversing with new people is “vous.” “Tu” is generally reserved for family and close friends. Maintain an open and cordial manner when talking to Canadians. Direct eye contact shows sincerity.

• Canadians often include spouses in their business invitations, although, it is best to confirm this before making plans to attend. It is also acceptable to reciprocate the offer. If dining out for a business event, it is common practice to dine at an upscale restaurant. Seafood is very popular along the coasts. Business meetings are held during any meal. Business conversation, however, is typically withheld until after the meal. Eating habits vary within
different ethnic areas. It is best to follow the lead of the host.

Sales & Marketing
The Canadian sales and marketing industry can be broken into five sub-categories: Advertising, Market Research, Marketing Consulting, Communications/Public Relations Consulting and Direct Marketing. With the growth of the Internet and its increasing importance as an advertising tool, the sales and marketing industry has naturally adopted new technological strategies, creating a high demand for IT-savvy sales and marketing professionals. More traditional positions are now requiring Internet skills and an understanding of how the Internet can be effectively utilized to increase sales and market exposure. Advertising industry experts are also paying increasing attention to the field of Customer Relationship Management (CRM).

Employment in the sales and marketing industry usually requires post-secondary education, specializing in marketing or business management. Relevant experience is also an asset and sometimes is considered as important, or more important, than post-secondary education. Desired traits include a proven track record in customer service experience, strong communication skills, project management experience, and more. The Canadian Marketing Association (CMA) is an organization of more that 750 companies who work in this

General Business
Canada’s management and consulting industries are among the most competitive in the world, ranking behind only the United States and Europe. Requirements for a managerial or consulting position usually include a post-secondary education and relevant work experience. For consulting, experience is essential to establish a client base from which to work. MBAs and other graduate degrees are highly regarded, and can provide substantial salary increases.

In Canada, the market is dominated by the big consulting firms: Accenture, Deloitte & Touche, PricewaterhouseCoopers, and CapGemini Ernst & Young. However, there are still many niches being filled by smaller, specialized firms. The current trend in the industry is focused around the IT sector. This sector is the largest segment in Canada, generating approximately 40 percent of the industry’s revenues.

Many successful business and consulting candidates have a post-secondary degree with a concentration in commerce or economics. The majority of higher-level executives usually have completed post-graduate work, such as a Masters of Business Administration (MBA). However, many employers do not hire top-level employees simply because of their level of education; the amount of experience plays a large role in a candidate’s job marketability. Canadian Business Magazine is the premier publication for this industry, published 24 times a year in English.

 This is only a small part of what is found in the 16+ information packed pages of the  job guide for Canada: About  Hineni Media Guides:

All you need to know to grab a global career in the Province of your choice and work in Canada. 16+ pages packed with detailed information from job sites to intensive interview advice, 300+ resources per guide researched and prepared by local experts. Each Province Guide is in PDF format that can be purchased, downloaded and printed for your personal use. An exceptional value for only $18.95

2. As the worldwide use of the Internet continues to grow, so does the  amount of information that it provides, There is information on almost anything related to jobs and searching for jobs but best bet through a membership sites, they just have what you are looking for without the hassle.